Glossary of Terms
Factor V Leiden Genotype
Free Fatty Acid
High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein
Prothrombin G20210A Mutation
Small Dense LDL Cholesterol
Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) the major protein component of HDL-C (good cholesterol) in your blood.
- ApoA1 helps to clear cholesterol from your arteries.
- High levels of ApoA1 decrease your risk for heart disease.
- HDL-C (good cholesterol) helps to protect against progression of plaque build-up in your artery walls.
- Of the different types of HDL, prebeta HDL particles are best at removing bad cholesterol from your artery wall, therefore reducing your risk for heart disease.
Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) helps "unlock" the door to cells and delivers cholesterol to the liver. If you have high levels of ApoB, it can lead to plaque that causes heart disease.
- We test your levels of ApoB because they are a better indicator of heart disease risk than total cholesterol or LDL (bad) cholesterol
- A healthier diet and an increase in exercise are lifestyle changes that improve your ApoB levels.
- ApoB is used by your doctor to help determine the need for certain medications and to monitor if those medication are working.
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) Genotype plays a critical role in comprehensive measurements by helping to identify how people respond to varied amounts of dietary fat and how they carry cholesterol in the bloodstream.
- ApoE comes in different forms, also called alleles. The three forms that occur most frequently include: ApoE2, ApoE3 and ApoE4.
- People carrying the ApoE4 gene are at greater risk for heart disease. This genetic test can therefore help you create a proactive plan for better total health.
AspirinWorks® Aspirin therapy has been reported to reduce cardiovascular events from 15% to 40%. However, Aspirin use is not without risk. We perform the AspirinWorks® test, a marker of platelet hyperactivity, to identify patients most likely to benefit from Aspirin.
C-Peptide is a naturally occurring substance that protects your blood vessels from the damaging effects of insulin.
- Insulin can cause the cells in your blood vessels to grow more than they should and narrow the passageway used by your blood to get to the heart. C-peptide is part of the insulin molecule.
- We test your C-peptide levels to help diagnose insulin resistance. Your doctor can use this information for your treatment plan and to verify the effectiveness of treatment.
- Knowing your C-peptide levels is especially important for people who have been newly diagnosed with type 1diabetes as well as those with type 2 diabetes.
- Sometimes a C-peptide test may be used to help evaluate a person diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, including risk factors like obesity and hypertension.
CYP2C19 a test used to determine your availability to Plavix® which is a platelet inhibitor like aspirin.
- Plavix® (the brand name for clopidogrel) is the world's second best-selling drug. However, patients with certain genetics may not receive the full benefit of the drug because they metabolize it poorly.
- By using this test, your doctor will be able to tell if you are a poor, intermediate or extensive metabolizer and customize your treatment plan accordingly.
F2-Isoprostanes Isoprostanes are valuable indicators of cell damage (oxidation) in your body. We test your F2-isoprostane concentration level because there is an association between increased concentration and coronary artery disease in adults.
Factor V Leiden Genotype a genetic test used to help your doctor determine if you are at higher risk for forming blood clots in your veins.
Fibrinogen a protein involved in the blood's clotting process and is also a marker of, inflammation. Fibrinogen can become elevated for a range of reasons.
- If you have high levels of fibrinogen on an ongoing basis, you may be at increased risk for developing a blood clot, heart disease, and other diseases.
- We test your fibrinogen levels, as they are a reflection of your clotting ability.
- You can lower your fibrinogen values though fat loss, smoking cessation, and medications.
Free Fatty Acids are a measurement of fatty acid molecules bound to albumin in the plasma.
- Fatty acids can be bound or attached to albumin. They cannot exist in plasma by themselves as fats are not soluble in water (plasma).
- We test for these because elevated free fatty acids are associated with metabolic syndrome. People with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk of coronary artery disease and other diseases related to plaque buildups in artery walls (such as stroke and type 2 diabetes).
- Free fatty acids can make your own insulin not work as well and can also cause an increase in your blood sugar.
- Weight loss, exercise and medication can help lower free fatty acid levels.
HDL Particle (HDL-P) an important risk factor to consider in your treatment plan. Low HDL-P can be a major risk factor. Testing your HDL Particle (HDL-P) can help your doctor better predict coronary events and severity of disease.
High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP) can indicate inflammation in your body as well as your blood vessels.
- C-Reactive protein (CRP) is a protein found in your blood.
- If you have elevated hsCRP, it may reflect both inflammation in your body or in the blood vessels.
- Blood vessel inflammation is often a sign of plaque buildup in the arteries (hardening of the arteries) which may rupture, causing a heart attack or stroke.
- If your hsCRP levels are elevated in association with a high apoB or LDL particle count, your doctor may prescribe a lipid lowering medication (statin) which has been shown to decrease hsCRP and your risk for heart disease and stroke. Reducing CRP is not necessarily a goal of therapy.
Homocysteine an amino acid found in the blood. Elevated concentrations of homocysteine can injure your blood vessel walls, cause blood clots, and increase your risk for heart disease and stroke.
- We monitor the amount of homocysteine in your blood to estimate risk of disease.
- You can reduce homocysteine levels through nutrition and adversely affect levels through medications although that has not been proven to reduce cardiovasclar events.
Insulin a hormone produced by your pancreas, necessary for glucose (your blood sugar) to be used for energy.
- We test your levels of insulin because high concentrations are linked to heart disease, diabetes, and other health concerns. You can improve your insulin levels through medications, exercise, nutrition and stress management.
LDL-P the actual number of LDL (bad) cholesterol particles in your blood.
- We now know that it is the total number of LDL particles that are most important, not the size of the particles and not how much cholesterol is carried within the LDL particle.
- If you have elevated levels of LDL-P, you are at increased risk of heart disease. It is the single most important risk factor as well as goal of therapy.
Lp-PLA2 or lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 travels in your blood, mainly with low-density lipoprotein (LDL). High concentration is linked to inflammation in the artery wall and can predict your risk of a heart attack or stroke.
- When your Lp-PLA2 and systolic blood pressure are both high, stroke risk increases significantly.
- Certain medications can help you reduce inflammation and levels of Lp-PLA2, which theoretically lowers your risks.
- Lifestyle changes such as proper nutrition, exercise and stress management help control your blood pressure and should help lower Lp-PLA levels.
Lp(a) Cholesterol (Lp(a) Mass) Lipoprotein(a), also called Lp(a), is a lipoprotein subclass and Lp(a)-cholesterol or Lp(a)-C. We test your Lp(a)-C because a high level in your blood is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. If Lp(a) is high and Lp(a)-C is normal, there is no risk.
- Elevated Lp(a) levels are genetic, meaning that they can occur in several family members.
- Lp(a) concentrations are only slighly affected by diet, exercise, and other environmental factors. Lp(a) may be lowered by some, but not all, commonly prescribed lipid-reducing drugs.
- Lp(a) can transiently shoot up high during acute inflammation
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) released as a defense mechanism when the artery wall is damaged or inflamed. It is a marker of oxidation and of HDL particle function.
- MPO testing has proven clinically useful in prevention of disease.
- We test your MPO because it allows your doctor to classify your risk categories and provide lifestyle modifications and treatment strategies.
MTHRF a gene that provides your body's instructions to make the building blocks for prortein. Specific versions of the MTHR gene may increase your risk of coronary heart disease and stroke.
NT-proBNP a hormone released from the cells o the heart muscle when you experience continued stress or strain on your heart.
- We test your level of NT-proBNP, as higher concentrations serve as a warning signal that your heart is overworked on an ongoing basis.
- With early awareness of high values, you can work with your physician to lower the risk of heart disease before symptoms present.
PLAC® Test a test that measures the concentration of Lp-PLA2 in your blood.
Prothrombin G20210A Mutation a genetic test used to help your doctor determine if you are at higher risk for forming blood clots.
RBC Folate folate inside your red blood cells (RBC).
- We measure RBC Folate because folate is necessary for normal cell formation, tissue and cellular repair.
- Inadequate levels of folate are linked to heart disease and stroke.
- Your doctor may suggest Folic acid supplements to improve your overall health.
Small Dense LDL Cholesterol (sdLDL) small, dense LDL (bad) cholesterol particles
- Though small dense LDL particles contain less LDL (bad) cholesterol, they may be more damaging to your artery walls than the larger LDL particles Small LDL particles are more difficult for your liver to remove from your blood.
- We measure your small dense LDL cholesterol levels to see if you are at risk even if you're within the normal LDL-C range.
- Exercise, weigh tloss and medications are ways you can help lower your small dense LDL.
Vitamin B12 the B vitamin that helps your body make blood cells and maintain a healthy nervous system. We test your vitamin B12 to ensure there are no risk factors and to gather information to customize your treatment plan.
Vitamin D Long-term studies have linked vitamin D deficiency with a twofold increased risk of a heart attack. Knowing your vitamin D level can help your doctor make the right recommendations for medications and supplements.